FAQ: 什么是EM菌

EM菌(Effective Microorganisms)是由大约80种微生物组成, EM菌由日本琉球大学的比嘉照教授1968年研究成功,于80年代投入市场。 EM菌是 以光 合细 菌、乳酸 菌、酵母 菌 和放 线菌 为主 的 6 个属 56余个微生物复合而成的一 种微生 活菌 制剂。作用机 理是形成EM菌和 病原 微生物 争夺营 养的竞争,由于em菌在土壤 中极易生 存繁 殖,所以能较快 而 稳 定地占 据土 壤 中的生态地 位,形成有 益的微生 物菌的优势群落,从 而 控制病 原 微生物的 繁 殖和 对作 物 的侵袭。80年代末90年代初,EM菌 已被 日本、泰 国、巴 西、美 国、印度尼西 亚、斯里 兰卡 等 国广 泛应 用干农 业、环 保等领域,取得了 明显的经济效益 和生态效益。

EM = Effective Microorganism (有益微生物群)

   是由光合菌群、乳酸菌群、酵母菌群、革兰氏阳性放线菌群、发酵系的丝状菌群共五科10属80多种有益菌共生共荣组成的新型微生物制剂。它的发明人是日本琉球大学比嘉照夫教授。EM原露技术自1991年引入中国,经证明其适用于农作物种植业、畜禽饲养业、水产养殖业、环保业和人体保健。

What is "EM"? 
This exception is "EM", standing for "effective microorganisms". EM products were developed by T. Higa of Ryukyu University, Okinawa. They contain abundant anaerobic lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, as well as other microorganisms. The utilization of these anaerobic microorganisms is a distinctive feature which distinguishes EM from other microbial products. EM first attracted notice in garbage treatment by local governments that were struggling to cope with the increasing amount of garbage. The EM manufacturer claimed that individual households could make "compost" of good quality in one or two weeks using a sealed plastic bag or container containing cooking refuse mixed with an EM product. Although anaerobic fermentation usually generates an unpleasant odor, EM products were claimed to suppress any bad smells by producing lactic acid. Higa claimed that the "compost" thus prepared could be used in a home garden or distributed to farmers. This idea attracted local governments, who hoped it would cut down on the cost of garbage treatment, as well as citizens who appreciated the importance of recycling. The "compost" thus prepared, however, has a very high water content, because water vapor cannot escape from a sealed bag. It also contains a large amount of available organic matter, because the decomposition of organic matter is incomplete, as with the making of silage or pickles. Incorporating available organic matter into the soil causes an explosive proliferation of pathogenic "sugar fungi" such as Physium and Rhizoctonia. Therefore, many crop failures have occurred when seeds were sown just after application of the "compost". Some farmers' groups are now making bokashi from this garbage compost by drying it, mixing it with other materials, and composting this mixture further.

1、光合菌群(好气性和嫌气性)。如光合细菌和蓝藻类。属于独立营养微生物 ,菌体本身含60%以上的蛋白质,且富含多种维生素,还含有辅酶Q10、抗病毒物质和促生长因子;它以土壤接受的光和热为能源,将土壤中的硫氢和碳氢化合物中的氢分离出来,变有害物质为无害物质,并以植物根部的分泌物、土壤中的有机物、有害气体(硫化氢等)及二氧化碳、氮等为基质,合成糖类、氨基酸类、维生素类、氮素化合物、抗病毒物质和生理活性物质等,是肥沃土壤和促进动植物生长的主要力量。光合菌群的代谢物质可以被植物直接吸收,还可以成为其它微生物繁殖的养分。光合细菌如果增殖,其它的有益微生物也会增殖。例如:VA菌根菌以光合菌分泌的氨基酸为食饵 ,它既能溶解不溶性磷,又能与固氮菌共生,使其固氮能力成倍提高。

2、乳酸菌群(嫌气性)。以嗜酸乳杆菌为主导。它靠摄取光合细菌、酵母菌产生的糖类形成乳酸。乳酸具有很强的杀菌能力,能有效抑制有害微生物的活动和有机物的急剧腐败分解。乳酸菌能够分解在常态下不易分解的木质素和纤维素,并使有机物发酵分解。乳酸菌还能够抑制连作障碍产生的致病菌增殖。致病菌活跃,有害线虫会急剧增加,植物就会衰弱,乳酸菌抑制了致病菌,有害线虫便会逐渐消失。

3、酵母菌群(好气性)。它利用植物根部产生的分泌物、光合菌合成的氨基酸、糖类及其它有机物质产生发酵力,合成促进根系生长及细胞分裂的活性化物质。酵母菌在EM原露中对于促进其它有效微生物(如乳酸菌、放线菌)增殖所需要的基质(食物)提供重要的给养保障。此外,酵母菌产生的单细胞蛋白是动物不可缺少的养分。

4、放线菌群(好气性)。

5、发酵系的丝状菌群(嫌气性)。

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